Parker H, Frost J, Britten N, Robinson S, Mattick K. Syst Rev. SPIDER is an alternative to PICO that has a special focus on qualitative research. When we consider our example question, the SPIDER could be applied as follows: Sample: Patients in aged care homes: Phenomenon of Interest: Cranberry juice for the prevention of UTIs: Design: Survey : Evaluation: Experiences: Research Type: Qualitative: Presenting the Question Once you've completed your SPIDER, just take the results and use them to construct your research question. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Beyond PICO: The SPIDER tool for qualitative evidence synthesis Qual Health Res October 2012 vol. PICO is used in the Health and Medicine disciplines to define research questions by pointing to 4 components that can be used as above. Utility of the three-delays model and its potential for supporting a solution-based approach to accessing intrapartum care in low- and middle-income countries. We have used the SPIDER tool to advance thinking beyond PICO in its suitable application to qualitative and mixed methods research. Epub 2018 Oct 1. So, in … 2020 Dec 31;13(1):1819052. doi: 10.1080/16549716.2020.1819052. What practical techniques can teachers at school X use to better identify and guide gifted children? However, we have highlighted once more the need for improved indexing of qualitative articles in databases. Understanding surgical antimicrobial prescribing behaviour in the hospital setting: a systematic review and meta-ethnography protocol. what is the result of the intervention? Qualitative Health Research, 22(1435). Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. You should use the strategy best suited for your chosen Clinical Question.

Sample - The group of people being looked at, because qualitative research is not easy to generalize, sample is preferred over patient. Defining your question for finding qualitative research: SPIDER tool. 2018 Oct;106(4):420-431. doi: 10.5195/jmla.2018.345. NIH

Clin Psychol Rev. Phenomenon of Interest - reasons for behaviour and decisions, rather than an intervention. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov. The type of research questions you might see include: SPIDER is an alternative to PICO that has a special focus on qualitative research.

An alternative search strategy tool for qualitative/mixed methods research is outlined: SPIDER (Sample, Phenomenon of Interest, Design, Evaluation, Research type). 2012 Aug;32(6):553-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2012.06.007. A qualitative evidence synthesis. 2020 Oct 1;14(10):e0008650. It focuses less on the intervention and more on the design of the study, and deals with "samples" rather than a "patient" or "populations". 2007.

It’s important to spend some time assessing and refining your question before you get started. In PICOT, the T stands for Time, and indicates how long from the intervention outcomes will be looked for. Searching the scientific literature: implications for quantitative and qualitative reviews. Sample - The group of people being looked at, because qualitative research is not easy to generalize, sample is preferred over patient. When we consider our example question, the SPIDER could be applied as follows: Once you've completed your SPIDER, just take the results and use them to construct your research question. 2020 Oct 10;9(1):236. doi: 10.1186/s13643-020-01477-5. When devising the question it is advisable to ask an open question rather than making a statement but not one that would lead to a simple 'yes' or 'no' answer. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.  |  Questions based on this format identify the following concepts: (1) S ample, (2) P henomenon of I nterest, (3) D esign, (4) E valuation, and (5) R esearch type. It is possible to include all elements when structuring your research question. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. (2012). In PICOS, the S stands for Study Design, such as cohorts or randomized controlled trials. Investigating a strategy for quantifying schistosome infection levels in preschool-aged children using prevalence data from school-aged children. research: SPIDER tool A summary of Cooke, A., Smith, D. & Booth, A. Actis Danna V, Bedwell C, Wakasiaka S, Lavender T. Glob Health Action. Application of evidence-based dentistry: from research to clinical periodontal practice.

Under-30s increasingly engage in the “gig economy” instead of traditional full-time employment, but there is little research NLM PICOT and PICOS are very similar to PICO but adds an extra element. The table below gives an outline of the types of studies you might come across: It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. We have used the SPIDER tool to advance thinking beyond PICO in its suitable application to qualitative and mixed methods research. Different disciplines have models for constructing research questions and we have listed these below. J Med Libr Assoc. This section will focus on using the SPIDER format to present your question. HHS COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features!

Should patients in aged care homes be given cranberry juice in order to prevent UTIs?

Again, you'll see that the phrasing of the question is more explicit, and so is a much better start for your searching. These can be primary and secondary outcomes. Revised on June 5, 2020. eCollection 2020 Oct. Int J Environ Res Public Health. Published on April 18, 2019 by Shona McCombes. Searching for veterinary evidence: strategies and resources for locating clinical research. In this article we address issues relating to using existing search strategy tools, most typically the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) formulation for defining key elements of a review question, when searching for qualitative and mixed methods research studies. Methley AM, Campbell S, Chew-Graham C, McNally R, Cheraghi-Sohi S. BMC Health Serv Res. We used both the SPIDER and PICO search strategy tools with a qualitative research question. 2012 Jun;59(1):61-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0757.2011.00437.x. Research question examples. Sample - the group of people being looked at, because qualitative research is not easy to generalize, sample is preferred over patient. These good and bad examples will demonstrate the qualities you need for an effective research question. … So, in the example above, the question could be structured as: What are the experiences of patients in aged care homes with the use of cranberry juice to prevent UTIs?

2007 May;37(3):433-45. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2007.01.003. Epub 2012 Jul 7. Lim RM, Woolhouse MEJ, Mduluza T, Chase-Topping M, Osakunor DNM, Chitsulo L, Mutapi F. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. Example research problem Example research question(s) The teachers at school X do not have the skills to recognize or properly guide gifted children in the classroom. To constitute a viable alternative to PICO, SPIDER needs to be refined and tested on a wider range of topics. 10 1435-1443, Structuring the pre-search reference interview: a useful technique for handling clinical questions Bull Med Libr Assoc. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Standardized systematic search strategies facilitate rigor in research. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Cranberry juice for the prevention of UTIs. Current search tools focus on retrieval of quantitative research. doi: 10.1177/1049732312452938. Design - The form of research used, such as interview or survey. 22 no. the person affected by what you are researching - what are their defining characteristics and what is the condition they are experiencing? How to cite this NCCMT summary: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (2013). An alternative search strategy tool for qualitative/mixed methods research is outlined: SPIDER (Sample, Phenomenon of Interest, Design, Evaluation, Research type). 2020 Sep 10;17(18):6588. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17186588. Phenomenon of Interest - Looks at the reasons for behaviour and decisions, rather than an intervention. The research question is one of the most important parts of your research project, thesis or dissertation. Design - the form of research used, such as interview or survey. As you prepare to write your essay or thesis, use these examples of good and bad research questions to make sure you are on the right track. Prevalence, Determinants, and Effects of Food Insecurity among Middle Eastern and North African Migrants and Refugees in High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review. USA.gov. The impact of patient, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) as a search strategy tool on literature search quality: a systematic review. Remember that in this format, the question above is not easily answerable. You will remember the SPIDER strategy from the Choosing Your Approach section. Determinants of Occupational Safety Culture in Hospitals and other Workplaces-Results from an Integrative Literature Review. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. PICO, PICOS and SPIDER: a comparison study of specificity and sensitivity in three search tools for qualitative systematic reviews. The SPIDER question format was adapted from the PICO tool to search for qualitative and mixed-methods research. Periodontol 2000. Research type - Qualitative, quantitative and/or mixed methods. It is important to define the area that you want to research in order to develop an effective search strategy. The key to this is to be very specific in terms of what you want to find. As your question should be comprehensive and specific, it should only include one question and ideally have three for four elements as suggested by the frameworks given on this page. 2020 Oct 4;17(19):7262. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17197262. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2000 Jul; 88(3): 239–246. It's useful to determine which kind of studies you wish to include in your review before starting the search and this will help with your decisions around inclusion and exclusion criteria. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older.

SPIDER. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008650. Int J Environ Res Public Health. Evaluation - outcome measures. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge.  |  Phenomenon of Interest - Looks at the reasons for behaviour and decisions, rather than an … The SPIDER tool can be used when dealing with qualitative research questions, that is, when the research is about attitudes and experiences rather than scientifically measurable data. 2014 Nov 21;14:579. doi: 10.1186/s12913-014-0579-0.

is there another treatment method that you would like to compare the intervention to? Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. The question will determine the nature and scope of the review; will identify the key concepts to be used in your search strategy; and will guide which papers you are searching for. We used both the SPIDER and PICO search strategy tools with a qualitative research question. Start with a problem statement about the area you want to study, and then create research questions and hypotheses to learn more. Beyond PICO: the SPIDER tool for qualitative evidence sythesis. Applying the SPIDER strategy will allow us to present the question in a way that allows us to better find the information we are trying to locate. Let's take a look at the example previously provided. You'll also notice that the final question formulated is very different to the one produced using the PICO strategy.

More information on the SPIDER method can be found at the link below.