All of these singers have repertoire based on the Hebridean tradition, such as puirt à beul and òrain luaidh (waulking songs). Purchase our new £10, £20, £50 or £100 Gift Certificates. The Inner Hebrides lie closer to mainland Scotland and include Islay, Jura, Skye, Mull, Raasay, Staffa and the Small Isles. This is especially true of the Outer Hebrides, where a slim majority speak the language.

[8], The earliest written references that have survived relating to the islands were made circa 77 AD by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History, where he states that there are 30 Hebudes, and makes a separate reference to Dumna, which Watson (1926) concludes is unequivocally the Outer Hebrides. Occupation at a site on Rùm is dated to 8590 ±95 uncorrected radiocarbon years BP, which is amongst the oldest evidence of occupation in Scotland. Lv 7. The following are the ten largest in the Hebrides and their outliers. For example, Adomnán records Sainea, Elena, Ommon and Oideacha in the Inner Hebrides, which names must have passed out of usage in the Norse era and whose locations are not clear. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Herring fishing is important at Stornoway on Lewis. [175][176], Heather moor containing ling, bell heather, cross-leaved heath, bog myrtle and fescues is abundant and there is a diversity of Arctic and alpine plants including Alpine pearlwort and mossy cyphal. The Hebrides (/ˈhɛbrɪdiːz/; Scottish Gaelic: Innse Gall, pronounced [ˈĩːʃə ˈkaul̪ˠ]; Old Norse: Suðreyjar) comprise a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland. [101] The Scottish acceptance of Magnus III as King of the Isles came after the Norwegian king had conquered Orkney, the Hebrides and the Isle of Man in a swift campaign earlier the same year, directed against the local Norwegian leaders of the various island petty kingdoms. (2001) Lewis and Harris, 19,918; Barra, 1,078; North Uist, 1,320; South Uist, 1,818; Skye, 9,251; Islay, 3,997; Jura, 188; Colonsay, 113; Mull, 2,696; Tiree, 770; Coll, 164; (2011) Lewis and Harris, 21,031; Barra, 1,174; North Uist, 1,312; South Uist, 1,754; Skye, 10,013; Islay, 3,228; Jura, 196; Colonsay, 132; Mull, 2,819; Tiree, 653; Coll, 195. Corrections? [133][134] The Scottish Gaelic college, Sabhal Mòr Ostaig, is based on Skye and Islay. The chief islands of the crescent-shaped chain of the Outer Hebrides are Lewis and Harris, North Uist, Benbecula, South Uist, and Barra. In 1886 an act of Parliament gave the crofters (tenant farmers) security and heritability of tenure. Mountain landscape of northern Skye, Inner Hebrides, Scotland. [141], There were, however, continuing gradual economic improvements, among the most visible of which was the replacement of the traditional thatched blackhouse with accommodation of a more modern design[142] and with the assistance of Highlands and Islands Enterprise many of the islands' populations have begun to increase after decades of decline. Disturbances continued until the passing of the 1886 Crofters' Act.[128]. The Hebrides have a diverse geology ranging in age from Precambrian strata that are amongst the oldest rocks in Europe to Paleogene igneous intrusions. [12], The name Ebudes recorded by Ptolemy may be pre-Celtic. The main islands include Barra, Benbecula, Berneray, Harris, Lewis, North Uist, South Uist, and St Kilda. The majority are Norse or Gaelic but the roots of several other Hebrides may have a pre-Celtic origin. [3], The Hebrides can be divided into two main groups, separated from one another by the Minch to the north and the Sea of the Hebrides to the south. The Outer Hebrides. A period of social unrest ensued, and in the 19th century emigration from the Hebrides to Australia and Canada became common. The Islands; Maps; Timelines; Articles; Gallery; Hebrides People. Sydney, Nova Scotia: Cape Breton UP, 2014. [170], Red deer are common on the hills and the grey seal and common seal are present around the coasts of Scotland. [101][Note 5], The Hebrides were now part of the Kingdom of the Isles, whose rulers were themselves vassals of the Kings of Norway. This tradition includes many songs composed by little-known or anonymous poets before 1800, such as "Fear a' bhàta", "Ailein duinn" and "Alasdair mhic Cholla Ghasda".

[178] Over 200 species of flowering plants have been recorded on the reserve, some of which are nationally scarce. [148], The Gaelic poet Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair spent much of his life in the Hebrides and often referred to them in his poetry, including in An Airce and Birlinn Chlann Raghnaill. 152-53, Duncan, P. J. For this reason it is treated as two separate islands below. A Lewis and Harris B Berneray C North Uist: The Uists, Benbecula, Eriskay and Barra. Site and Hebrides People Genealogical Application by. in Ballin Smith, Megaw, J.V. 135–38, Duncan, P. J. [95] The figure of Columba looms large in any history of Dál Riata, and his founding of a monastery on Iona ensured that the kingdom would be of great importance in the spread of Christianity in northern Britain. I this book Mary J. MacLeod claims to have worked on the island of Papavray,I can find no such island on my charts. The islands are subdivided into two groups—the Inner Hebrides to the east and the Outer Hebrides to the west—which are separated from each other by channels called the Minch and the Little Minch. [22] The origin of Uist (Old Norse: Ívist) is similarly unclear.[15]. Trapped animals were relocated to the mainland. Adomnán, the 7th century abbot of Iona, records Colonsay as Colosus and Tiree as Ethica, both of which may be pre-Celtic names. Vamp. The transitional relationships between Norse and Gaelic-speaking rulers are complex. [117][118] The aftermath of the decisive Battle of Culloden, which effectively ended Jacobite hopes of a Stuart restoration, was widely felt.

"Gometra, from N., is. [100] Norse control of the Hebrides was formalised in 1098 when Edgar of Scotland formally signed the islands over to Magnus III of Norway.